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the.killer
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PostSubject: mobile Repearing corus   10/25/2007, 6:05 am

Mobile Phone Functions


There are three major sections inside a mobile phone
· Power Section
· Radio Section
· Computer Section
Power Section:
A power section deals with power related tasks such as power distribution or charging the battery so this section can be divided into two sub sections like.
· Power Distribution
A power distribution section is built around an "power IC" it takes 3.6V power from battery and regulates its power and then distributes to the other components used in mobile phone circuit. in some mobile phones tech "RF Power amplifier" uses more Power than provided bye mobile phone's battery .i.e. 4.7 V or 5.6 V in some phones. the power Ic with a power boaster coil is used to increase voltages. so we can say that power IC is used to provide power to other components how much they needed. either less than battery voltage or more than it.
· Charging Section
A charging section works for battery charging purposes.it is often consists a fuse, a coil, a protecting diode, a filter capacitor and charging IC and some other discreet. the charging section helps battery to be charged when it needs and when battery is charged, charging IC reads its state of charge and feels it full charged and then disconnects charging from it.
Radio Section:
A radio section has basically a set of four main functions.wich are.
· Band Switching
· RF Power Amplification
· Transmitter
· Receiver
Band Switching:
In the modern mobile phone communication techniques. the frequency of mobile phone communication is divided into three bands
· GSM (operates on 900 MHz)
· DCS (operates on 1800 MHz)
· PCS (operates on 1900 MHz)
the third band is used only in USA whereas the first two bands are used in the rest of the world. band switching is done bye a "ceramic antenna switch" it reads from the radiation dispersed in the air and then switches to the appropriate band.
in the very first phase of mobile phones there were single band handsets which operated on single frequency band but now a days all the handsets are dual band or tri band in operation.
RF Power Amplifier
RF power amplifier is often called as ".PA" or"Transmitter" its functions is to amplify or boast the power which is being transmitted to air, so may it would be able to communicate with long distances. a typical .PA can amplify rf power up to 0.6W or 600mW. This amount of rf power is sufficient to communicate nearly 20 to 25 kilometers in open area, but all the PA's are controlled by there rf signal processor, so if we are near our cell base tower the PA of our phone will transmit low power but if we are far away it will produce its maximum power.
Transmitting
A mobile phone's rf section is basically built around an rf IC which is often called rf signal processor whereas in nokia it is called hagar IC in some hand sets and in some hand sets it is called Mjoelner. irrespectively of the brands and verity of names we call it rf signal processor. this IC works as transmitter and receiver as well. working as transmitter it takes instructions from phone's computer and also takes audio data from audio section and creates radio waves then mixes audio data to its radio waves according to the instructions given by computer section. this mixer of audio and radio is sent to PA to amplify its strength
Reciever
A reciver section for rf waves is built in rf IC, as it is said that this IC works for dual purposes first transmitting and section recieving. in the recieving section of mobile phones a radio signal is gather from ceramic antenna switch and then it is filtered and sent to rf IC to further process. in rf IC signal is detected and then rectified for audio and data which is sent to audio IC or computer section.
Computer Section:
A computer section in mobile phone consists of two main functions
· CPU(central processing unit)
· Memory (RAM, FLASH, COMBO CHIP)
CPU:
A CPU is used in mobile phones as a central processing arithematic or controler. the cpu controls various functions in mobile phones like signal, display, sound converting(DSP), charging, power on, rf channel controler, rf tx power conroller, LEDs, vibrator, data processing, data storing etc. so we can say that if a cpu is damaged in any mobile phone it cannot be repaired unless the CPU is not replaced but this type of fault is not even seen to me ever either memory chips can be damaged. in brand Nokia CPU is named with two different words (MAD or UPP)
Memory:
there are two main types of memories used in mobile phones
· RAM (Random Access Memory)
The RAM is used in mobile phones to store user data in mobile phones. So these a days we can store pictures, messages, ringtones, applications, themes and other these type of things in mobile phones so CPU stores these types of data in the RAM of our mobile phones.
· Flash (eeprom, ROM etc)
The flash chip is used in mobile phones to hold mobile phone's operating system in it. so if the flash chip is damaged in mobile phones the phone cannot power on properly because all the instructions to start a mobile phones and its various tasks like call making , display etc are stored in the flash chip of mobile phones.
· Combo Chip
In smoe mobile phones there is a combined type of memory used which is called combo memory chips these types of memories work for both like RAM and Flash.The clear example of this type of memory is used in Nokia 1100.
Note: Multy Media Cards are not a part of mobile phones becaues they are used externally.
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/25/2007, 6:07 am

Introduction to Mobile Phone Part II




Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures.
First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands.
There are three major sections inside a mobile phone

· Power Section
· Radio Section
· Computer Section
Power Section:
A power section deals with power related tasks such as power distribution or charging the battery so this section can be divided into two sub sections like.
Power Distribution
A power distribution section is built around an "power IC" it takes 3.6V power from battery and regulates its power and then distributes to the other components used in mobile phone circuit. in some mobile phones tech "RF Power amplifier" uses more Power than provided bye mobile phone's battery .i.e. 4.7 V or 5.6 V in some phones. the power Ic with a power boaster coil is used to increase voltages. so we can say that power IC is used to provide power to other components how much they needed. either less than battery voltage or more than it.
Charging Section
A charging section works for battery charging purposes.it is often consists a fuse, a coil, a protecting diode, a filter capacitor and charging IC and some other discreet. the charging section helps battery to be charged when it needs and when battery is charged, charging IC reads its state of charge and feels it full charged and then disconnects charging from it.
Radio Section:
A radio section has basically a set of four main functions.wich are.
· Band Switching
· RF Power Amplification
· Transmitter
· Receiver
Band Switching:
In the modern mobile phone communication techniques. the frequency of mobile phone communication is divided into three bands
· GSM (operates on 900 MHz)
· DCS (operates on 1800 MHz)
· PCS (operates on 1900 MHz)
the third band is used only in USA whereas the first two bands are used in the rest of the world. band switching is done bye a "ceramic antenna switch" it reads from the radiation dispersed in the air and then switches to the appropriate band.
in the very first phase of mobile phones there were single band handsets which operated on single frequency band but now a days all the handsets are dual band or tri band in operation.
RF Power Amplifier
RF power amplifier is often called as ".PA" or"Transmitter" its functions is to amplify or boast the power which is being transmitted to air, so may it would be able to communicate with long distances. a typical .PA can amplify rf power up to 0.6W or 600mW. This amount of rf power is sufficient to communicate nearly 20 to 25 kilometers in open area, but all the PA's are controlled by there rf signal processor, so if we are near our cell base tower the PA of our phone will transmit low power but if we are far away it will produce its maximum power.
Transmitting
A mobile phone's rf section is basically built around an rf IC which is often called rf signal processor whereas in nokia it is called hagar IC in some hand sets and in some hand sets it is called Mjoelner. irrespectively of the brands and verity of names we call it rf signal processor. this IC works as transmitter and receiver as well. working as transmitter it takes instructions from phone's computer and also takes audio data from audio section and creates radio waves then mixes audio data to its radio waves according to the instructions given by computer section. this mixer of audio and radio is sent to PA to amplify its strength
Reciever
A reciver section for rf waves is built in rf IC, as it is said that this IC works for dual purposes first transmitting and section recieving. in the recieving section of mobile phones a radio signal is gather from ceramic antenna switch and then it is filtered and sent to rf IC to further process. in rf IC signal is detected and then rectified for audio and data which is sent to audio IC or computer section.
Computer Section:
A computer section in mobile phone consists of two main functions
· CPU(central processing unit)
· Memory (RAM, FLASH, COMBO CHIP)
CPU:
A CPU is used in mobile phones as a central processing arithematic or controler. the cpu controls various functions in mobile phones like signal, display, sound converting(DSP), charging, power on, rf channel controler, rf tx power conroller, LEDs, vibrator, data processing, data storing etc. so we can say that if a cpu is damaged in any mobile phone it cannot be repaired unless the CPU is not replaced but this type of fault is not even seen to me ever either memory chips can be damaged. in brand Nokia CPU is named with two different words (MAD or UPP)
Memory:
there are two main types of memories used in mobile phones
· RAM (Random Access Memory)
The RAM is used in mobile phones to store user data in mobile phones. So these a days we can store pictures, messages, ringtones, applications, themes and other these type of things in mobile phones so CPU stores these types of data in the RAM of our mobile phones.
· Flash (eeprom, ROM etc)
The flash chip is used in mobile phones to hold mobile phone's operating system in it. so if the flash chip is damaged in mobile phones the phone cannot power on properly because all the instructions to start a mobile phones and its various tasks like call making , display etc are stored in the flash chip of mobile phones.
· Combo Chip
In smoe mobile phones there is a combined type of memory used which is called combo memory chips these types of memories work for both like RAM and Flash.The clear example of this type of memory is used in Nokia 1100.
Note: Multy Media Cards are not a part of mobile phones becaues they are used externally.

Mobile Phone Function


Dear friends here we will discuss about what kind of functions a typical mobile phone has so let us start our new lesson. while starting i would like to say all of you that you please keep in touch with me by our contact us page and please don't feel any hesitation to ask me any question if you have about these lessons. these lessons will make you learn good repairing skills so keep reading these lectures.

First of all we will discuss how many main functions a mobile phone often has irrespectively of mobile brands.
There are three major sections inside a mobile phone


· Power Section
· Radio Section
· Computer Section
Power Section:
A power section deals with power related tasks such as power distribution or charging the battery so this section can be divided into two sub sections like.
Power Distribution
A power distribution section is built around an "power IC" it takes 3.6V power from battery and regulates its power and then distributes to the other components used in mobile phone circuit. in some mobile phones tech "RF Power amplifier" uses more Power than provided bye mobile phone's battery .i.e. 4.7 V or 5.6 V in some phones. the power Ic with a power boaster coil is used to increase voltages. so we can say that power IC is used to provide power to other components how much they needed. either less than battery voltage or more than it.
Charging Section
A charging section works for battery charging purposes.it is often consists a fuse, a coil, a protecting diode, a filter capacitor and charging IC and some other discreet. the charging section helps battery to be charged when it needs and when battery is charged, charging IC reads its state of charge and feels it full charged and then disconnects charging from it.

Radio Section:
A radio section has basically a set of four main functions.wich are.
· Band Switching
· RF Power Amplification
· Transmitter
· Receiver
Band Switching:
In the modern mobile phone communication techniques. the frequency of mobile phone communication is divided into three bands
· GSM (operates on 900 MHz)
· DCS (operates on 1800 MHz)
· PCS (operates on 1900 MHz)
the third band is used only in USA whereas the first two bands are used in the rest of the world. band switching is done bye a "ceramic antenna switch" it reads from the radiation dispersed in the air and then switches to the appropriate band.
in the very first phase of mobile phones there were single band handsets which operated on single frequency band but now a days all the handsets are dual band or tri band in operation.
RF Power Amplifier
RF power amplifier is often called as ".PA" or"Transmitter" its functions is to amplify or boast the power which is being transmitted to air, so may it would be able to communicate with long distances. a typical .PA can amplify rf power up to 0.6W or 600mW. This amount of rf power is sufficient to communicate nearly 20 to 25 kilometers in open area, but all the PA's are controlled by there rf signal processor, so if we are near our cell base tower the PA of our phone will transmit low power but if we are far away it will produce its maximum power.
Transmitting
A mobile phone's rf section is basically built around an rf IC which is often called rf signal processor whereas in nokia it is called hagar IC in some hand sets and in some hand sets it is called Mjoelner. irrespectively of the brands and verity of names we call it rf signal processor. this IC works as transmitter and receiver as well. working as transmitter it takes instructions from phone's computer and also takes audio data from audio section and creates radio waves then mixes audio data to its radio waves according to the instructions given by computer section. this mixer of audio and radio is sent to PA to amplify its strength
Reciever
A reciver section for rf waves is built in rf IC, as it is said that this IC works for dual purposes first transmitting and section recieving. in the recieving section of mobile phones a radio signal is gather from ceramic antenna switch and then it is filtered and sent to rf IC to further process. in rf IC signal is detected and then rectified for audio and data which is sent to audio IC or computer section.
Computer Section:
A computer section in mobile phone consists of two main functions
· CPU(central processing unit)
· Memory (RAM, FLASH, COMBO CHIP)
CPU:
A CPU is used in mobile phones as a central processing arithematic or controler. the cpu controls various functions in mobile phones like signal, display, sound converting(DSP), charging, power on, rf channel controler, rf tx power conroller, LEDs, vibrator, data processing, data storing etc. so we can say that if a cpu is damaged in any mobile phone it cannot be repaired unless the CPU is not replaced but this type of fault is not even seen to me ever either memory chips can be damaged. in brand Nokia CPU is named with two different words (MAD or UPP)
Memory:
there are two main types of memories used in mobile phones
· RAM (Random Access Memory)
The RAM is used in mobile phones to store user data in mobile phones. So these a days we can store pictures, messages, ringtones, applications, themes and other these type of things in mobile phones so CPU stores these types of data in the RAM of our mobile phones.
· Flash (eeprom, ROM etc)
The flash chip is used in mobile phones to hold mobile phone's operating system in it. so if the flash chip is damaged in mobile phones the phone cannot power on properly because all the instructions to start a mobile phones and its various tasks like call making , display etc are stored in the flash chip of mobile phones.
· Combo Chip
In smoe mobile phones there is a combined type of memory used which is called combo memory chips these types of memories work for both like RAM and Flash.The clear example of this type of memory is used in Nokia 1100.
Note: Multy Media Cards are not a part of mobile phones because they are used externally.


Mother Board System

This Lesson is intended to make you aware of the Fundamentals of a mobile phone's mother board and I want to teach you about what a typical mother board.

A typical mother board is constructed using two main things
· Fiber Plate
· Copper Plate
These two plates are joined in three forms.
· Single layer board
· Double layer board
· Three or tripple layer board
A single layer board is constructed yusing one copper plate and the other fiber plate. Its one side is copper faced and other is fiber faced.
while a Double layer board is made with two copper sheets ad fiber sheet.Its one side is copper faced and the other is also copper faced and the fiber is stcked between two copper sheets.this kind of board holds electronic components on both of its side because both copper sided prints anre inter connected with one another on proper places
A three layer board is made with three copper sheets and two fiber sheet.as it is shown below.
Basics about Mother Boards
Different mother boards have different views but many things are common in different brand mother boards.first common thing is ,every mother board has radio Section(Discussed in Lesson 1) on top of the mother board
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/25/2007, 6:09 am

Filters ….antenna Switch ….. What Are They?

Filters ….antenna Switch ….. What Are They?

Antenna Switches are used in Mobile Phones extensively at the very first stage of the point of entry of the signal (called the received signal Rx) into the mobile phone which also eventually becomes the point of exit for the outgoing signal or the transmitted signal Tx.

ANTENNA SWITCH ….. FILTERS ….WHAT ARE THEY?

ANTENNA SWITCHES OR DIPLEXERS ARE DEVICES WHICH transmit and receive on the same antenna at the same time, reject unwanted signals and feed two different signals to the same antenna.

(ANTENNA SWITCH IS ALSO KNOWN AS A DIPLEXER ! )

The common application for a diplexer is to connect a dual band mobile radio's two antenna connections to a common feed line and antenna. A diplexer is a simple high and low pass filter connected together. The filters are explained in detail below.

Diplexers are three-terminal frequency-dependent devices that can be used as a separator or a combiner of signals. It can have more than three terminals also. The device consists of two fixed tuned bandpass filters sharing a common port. The common port and the output of the two filters (RX and TX) form the three terminals of the diplexer. Signals applied to common port are separated in accordance with their passband frequencies of the filters. Signals applied to either uncommon port are isolated from the other uncommon port and are combined at the common port.

Picture of a DIPLEXER


If u can't find the PICTURE HERE, please download the attached file for viewing it.

As is common knowledge, a FILTER is a device which removes unwanted items from a mix and provides us with a finished product which is a pure final product of our requirement.

Electronic filters are electronic circuits which carry out the signal processing functions, specifically intended to enhance wanted signal components and/or remove unwanted ones.

SAW (surface acoustic wave) filters are electromechanical devices commonly used in radio frequency applications. Electrical signals are converted to a mechanical wave in a piezoelectric crystal; this wave is delayed as it propagates across the crystal, before being converted back to an electrical signal by further electrodes. The delayed outputs are recombined to produce a direct analog implementation of a finite impulse response filter. This hybrid filtering technique is also found in an analog sampled filter.

Passive filters :The simplest electronic linear filters are based on combinations of resistors, inductors and capacitors. These filters exist in so-called RC,LC,RL, and RLC varieties. All these types are collectively known as passive filters, because they do not depend upon an external power supply. Inductors block high-frequency signals and conduct low-frequency signals, while capacitors do the reverse. A filter in which the signal passes through an inductor, or in which a capacitor provides a path to earth, therefore presents less attenuation to low-frequency signals than high-frequency signals and is a low-pass filter. If the signal passes through a capacitor, or has a path to ground through an inductor, then the filter presents less attenuation to high-frequency signals than low-frequency signals and is a high-pass filter. Resistors on their own have no frequency-selective properties, but are added to inductors and capacitors to determine the time-constants of the circuit, and therefore the frequencies to which it responds.
At very high frequencies (above about 100 megahertz or megacycles.), sometimes the inductors consist of single loops or strips of sheet metal, and the capacitors consist of adjacent strips of metal. These are called stubs.
Active filters: Active filters are made up by using a combination of passive and active (amplifying) components. Amplifiers are frequently used in active filter designs. These can have high selectivity, and achieve the desired selectivity without the use of inductors. However, their upper frequency limit is limited by the bandwidth of the amplifiers used.
Generally, each family of filters can be assigned a particular order. The higher the order, the more the filter will approach the "perfect" filter of complete transmission in the pass band, and complete attenuation in the stop band.
Each family can be used to specify a particular pass band in which frequencies are transmitted, while frequencies outside the pass band are more or less attenuated.
• Low-pass filter - Low frequencies are passed, high frequencies are attenuated.
• High-pass filter - High frequencies are passed, Low frequencies are attenuated.
• Band-pass filter- Only frequencies in a frequency band are passed.
• Band-stop filter - Only frequencies in a frequency band are attenuated.
• All-pass filter - All frequencies are passed, but the phase of the output is modified.
• An analogue filter handles analogue signals or continuous-time signals, whether electric potential, sound waves, or mechanical motion directly. This is opposed to a digital filter that operates on discrete-time signals. Older analog filters (newer filters are digital filters) work entirely in the analog realm and must rely on physical networks of electronic components (such as resistors, capacitors, transistors, etc.) to achieve a desired filtering effect.
Passive filter: A passive component is an electronic component that does not require a source of energy to perform its intended function. Examples of passive components include resistors, capacitors, and inductors.
A passive filter is an electronic filter made entirely from passive components.
Active filter: An Active filter is the one which involves active component that make use of a semi-conductor device like a transistor, an electronic device that requires a source of energy to perform its intended function.
A active component is one that can be used to provide gain or an amolification of the signal in an electronic circuit. It contains mainly semiconductor devices like diodes and transistors.

Digital filter : A digital filter is any electronic filter that works by performing digital math operations on an intermediate form of a signal.
Digital filters can easily achieve performance metrics far beyond what is (even theoretically) possible with analog filters. It is not particularly difficult, for example, to create a 1000Hz low-pass filter which can achieve near-perfect transmission of a 999Hz input while entirely blocking a 1001Hz signal. Analog filters cannot split apart such closely spaced signals.
Also, for complex multi-stage filtering operations, digital filters have the potential to attain much better signal to noise ratios (more of desired signal in comparision to unwanted signals) than analog filters. This is because whereas at each intermediate stage the analog filter adds more noise to the signal, the digital filter performs noiseless math operations at each intermediate step in the transform. The primary source of noise in a digital filter is found in the initial analog to digital conversion step, where in addition to any circuit noise introduced, the signal is subject to an unavoidable selectivity error due to the finite resolution of the digital representation of the signal.
Digital filters can achieve virtually any filtering effect that can be expressed as a mathematical algorithm. The two primary limitations of digital filters are their speed (the filter can't operate any faster than the computer at the heart of the filter), and their cost. However as the cost of integrated circuits have continued to drop over time, digital filters have become increasingly commonplace and are now an essential element of many everyday objects such as radios, cellphones, and stereo receivers. Digital filters can easily achieve performance levels far more than what is (even theoretically) possible with analog filters. It is not particularly difficult, for example, to create a 1KHz low-pass filter which can achieve near-perfect transmission of a 0.999KHz input while entirely blocking a 1.001KHz signal. Analog filters cannot split apart such closely spaced signals.
Mobile Phones make use of Filters called Dual Band-pass filters because they need to allow two frequencies of signals most commonly 900MHz and 1800MHz in the dual band mobile phones. Also Antenna Switches are used in Mobile Phones expensively at the very first stage of the point of entry of the signal (called the received signal Rx) into the mobile phone which also eventually becomes the point of exit for the outgoing signal or the transmitted signal Tx. The newer models of the Mobile Phones like a Nokia 6600 makes use of an active Antenna Switch which also has a built-in amplifier circuit inside it to immediately boost the Rx signal.
See how they are put to use in Nokia 3310 at :http://forum.gsmhosting.com/vbb/show...31#post2021431
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/25/2007, 6:10 am

Dead Set Repairing

Dead Set Repairing
We are going to discuss here some techniques and steps to repair dead condition in mobile phones irrespectively of brands
First of all let us now about the main functions to power on a mobile phone you can consult our previous lesson

1.



Key Componentsand funtions:
· Battery
· Power Switch
· battery terminal
· Power IC
· Oscilator
· Frequency divider
· CPU
· Flash (ROM / EEPROM)
.
Battery:
A battery is used to provide power supply to our mother board unit so if this battery or on of its funtions fails the whole mobile phone fails to power on. So battery must be in good condition to make a mobile phone power on. Some times the third Pin used in battery which is called "BSI" is not working correctly but voltage can be found in " + " and " - " terminals, in this situation mobile phone cannot turn on.
Power Switch:
A power switch is used in a mobile phone to turn on and off mobile phones if it is faulty the whole unit cannot power on so keep checking its terminals wether they are connected with the power IC of not if not then you can make a jumpwer and connect it.
Battery terminal:
battery terminals connect battery to mobile phone component unit if its points are dry soldered of unsoldered or bended then you can change and fix this problem which is alwways in the result of no power on. so if battery terminals are working correctly you need to proceed further.
Power IC:
A power IC distributes current among all the components actually a power IC works as " voltage regulator" and " power on funtion" so if a power on funtion is faulty the whole unit will not power on. but there are some problems with ICs that we cannot check them wether they are working right or not rather we can only assume that they are faulty if the other functions are correct.
Oscilator:
An oscilator makes low frequency which is called clock frequency. this frequency is used to run digital components if this frequency is not available digital components fail to work and the result is power on failure. the out put frequency is used in mobile phone's CPU and Memory chips and UEM Ic if used.
Frequency divider:
Frequency dividing is a funtion which is used in mobile phones to divide clocke frequency to get accurate frequency to run digital components so if divider is failed power on fault mat occur. this frequency dividing funtion is built in radio ICs commonly like hagar IC or Mojoelner in Nokia mobile phones.
CPU
A CPU (central processing unit) is like a brain in mobile phones which controls the major parts of mobile phones so its funtionality is very necessory in mobile phones while testing in boot process but its functionality is assosiated with Memory chips used in mobile phone specially Flash chip.
Flash Chip ( EEPROM)
A flash chip holds booting information in it self it has instructions stored in itself for the CPU to control other components so if flash chip or its software is damaged it mean the set do not power on. in case of damaged software the phone should be treated in flashing process
* The word flashing denotes in mobile phones that some software installation.



Steps to Repair Dead Set

Note Some steps which cannot be take in an average mobile phone lab are avoided to be explained becaues oscilator and divider's functionality can be cehecked by Osciloscope which is not available in an common mobile phone lab.
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/25/2007, 6:12 am

Common Faults In Mobile Phones

A typical mobile phone has various types of faults which can be distributed in two main kinds of faults
· Hardware faults
· Software faults
· Setting Faults
Hardware Faults:
Hardware faults in mobile phones are related to mother boards of mobile phone, batteries and any physical fault will be amount to hardware faults. I have pointed out as much hardware faults as much i remeber this time but if you have a fault which is not listed below you can tell me by clicking here I willo be glad to know that it would be a great help for me too.The list of common hardwarefaults is given below.
· dead set condition
· no charging
· battery empty
· auto charging
· low signal
· No signal
· voice problem
· vibrator problem
· ringer problem
· backlight problem
· auto turn off
· hanging problem
· insert sim (no sim card inserted shows on the screen)
· keypad problem
· display problem
Software problems:
· hanging problem
· no signal
· dead set
· display
· contact service (contact retailer, contact service provider)
· Test mode
· not charging
Setting problem:
· call divert
· sim lock
· security code
· country lock
· cnfiguration of SMS
· configuration of GPRS
· configuration of call
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/25/2007, 6:44 am

great class sir
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/26/2007, 3:10 am

Ary Wah Very nice class brother...
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/26/2007, 3:11 am

Charging Faults

charging faults are mainly of three types
· No charging
· Not charging
· Auto charging
No charging:
in this fault a mobile phone does not charge at all when charging pin is inserted nothing happens it is always due to damaged fuse. or broken charging supply track if we repair fuse or jumper broken tracks we can set this fault off.
but on the first step I am telling you how to check no charging fault.
· Check Your battery if it is not connected properly no charging fault occurs.
· check continuity between charging pins it should be nor full nor high resistance.
· if it is showing full continuity then there may be some problem in your charging IC may it is totally short you can re hot /replace this IC.
· if there is no continuity in charging pins 90% fuse is damaged. you can replace fuse or jumper it. if a fuse shows full continuity in multi meter then it is working correctly if it is not so it is damaged.
· if fuse is not damaged you can check tracks if broken.
· if fuse, battery and tracks are ok then charging IC would be damaged.


Not charging:
in this fault a mobile phone shows a message "Not charging" on the screen when ever it is connected with charging pins. this type of fault is not a mere hardware fault it is 90% software fault. this fault is present only in nokia and I personally experienced a problem with a nokia 3100 it was showing "Not charging" i tried hardware solutions but totally in vain so I upgraded my software now every thing was ok. . and this is the same case in many types of nokia brands you can check this up.
Only nokia 1100 when "Not charging" fault comes it is very hard to remove this fault in nokia 1100 I only repaired a little number of nokia 1100 displaying this message there was a problem in charge connector diode next to charging fuse. but often it can be solved by repairing software or upgrading it.
Auto Charging:
In auto charging a phone continues showing charging despite of removing charging pin from phone.
· in this type of fault the "BSI" pin of mobile phone is very important because it is used to tell the phone what is the state of mobile phone charging now so if this pin is not ok this fault occurs.
· there are some cases in wich a mobile phone battery is ok but auto charging is present you can check transistors if used in charging section and if faulty replace it because this transistor is used in some mobilephones to cut off charging from phone automatically. in
· In some cases a resistance in charging section is responsible for that which is marked as "R22" in charging section so you can check "+" supply connection with this
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/26/2007, 3:16 am

AA hand book of gsm terms

A5/1/2/3/8X - Encryption algorithms for GSM networks

AAL - ATM Adaptation Layer


A-bis = Interface between the BSC and BTS in a GSM network
AB - Access Burst
used for random access and characterised by a longer guard period to allow for burst transmission from a MS that does not know the correct timing advance when first contacting a network

ABR - Available Bit Rate

AC - Alternating Current ( the standard electricity type )
ACCH - Analog Control Channel
ACTE - Approvals Committee for Terminal Equipment
ACTS - Advanced Communications Technologies and Services.
a European technology initiative


ACU - Antenna Combining Unit

AC Charger :

an accessory device that allows you to power and/or charge your phone from a wall outlet


Activation the process:

Activation the process by which a cell phone account is created, your phone number assigned, and your phone programmed so that you can make and receive calls.

Active Flip/Keypad :

Active Flip/Keypad Cover a feature that will answer a call by opening the keypad cover and end a call by closing the keypad cover.



ADC - Analog to Digital Convertor

ADPCM - Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation
( a form of voice compression that typically uses 32kbit/s)


Advice of charge:
A service which provides the user with information on the cost of calls from a mobile phone



AFC - Automatic Frequency Control

AGC - Automatic Gain Control

AGCH - Access Grant Channel; downlink only, BTS allocates a TCH or SDCCH to the MS, allowing it access to the network

A-interface :
Interface between the MSC and BSS in a GSM network

Airtime:
The amount of time a subscriber spends using his/her mobile phone


Air interface:

In a mobile phone network, the radio transmission path between the base station and the mobile terminal



AM - Amplitude Modulation

AMPS - Advanced Mobile Phone Service

Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is the analog mobile phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas in 1983[1][2] It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America (and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s, and is still widely available today, although use has dropped considerably with the introduction of various digital standards.

Total Access Communication System (TACS) and ETACS are mostly-obsolete variants of AMPS which were used in some European countries (including the UK). TACS was also used in Japan under the name Japanese Total Access Communication (JTAC).[3][4]





AMR - Adaptive Multi-Rate codec.

Developed in 1999 for use in GSM networks, the AMRhas been adopted by 3GPP for 3G


ANSI - American National Standards Institute.

An non-profit making US organisation which does not carry out standardisation work but reviews the work of standards bodies and assigns them category codes and numbers

ANSI-136
See D-AMPS

Analogue:
The representation of information by a continuously variable physical quantity such as voltage


Antenna:
a part of a cell phone that receives and transmits cellular radio-frequency transmissions


AoC
Advice of Charge

API - Application Program Interface



ARIB - Association of Radio Industries and Businesses.

Association of Radio Industries and Businesses. An organisation established by Japan’s Ministry of Posts and Communications to act as the standardisation authority for radio communication and broadcasting


ARM
one of the three types of processors that can be found in Pocket PCS. Created by ARM Ltd., the ARM processor has a unique architecture compared to its two competitors (MIPS and SH3), and therefore can only run programs created specifically for it.

ARPU
Average Revenue Per User

ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit

Electronic chips designed for some concrete purposes (for example, in phone it controlls communication between MCU and DSP) They're designed and produced by the companies which use them.

ASP - Application Service Provider


Asymmetric Transmission:
Data transmissions where the traffic from the network to the subscriber is at a higher rate than the traffic from the subscriber to the network



A-TDMA - Advanced Time Division Multiple Access

ATM
Asynchronous Transfer Mode; a multiplexed information transfer and switching method in which the data is organised into fixed length 53-octet cells and transmitted according to each application’s instantaneous need


AVCH - Analog Voice Channel


B


BB5 - base band 5

BCC - Base-station Color Code

B-CDMA - Broadband Code Division Multiple Access

BCH - Broadcast Channels( carry only downlink information and are mainly responsible for synchronisation and frequency correction (BCCH, FCCH and SCH)

BCCH - Brodcast Control Channel
the logical channel used in cellular networks to broadcast signalling and control information to all mobile phones within the network

BER - Bit Error Rate; the percentage of received bits in error compared to the total number of bits received

BERT - Bit Error Rate Test


BGA - ball grid array

BHCA - Busy Hour Call Attempts( the number of call attempts made during a network’s busiest hour of the day)

B-ISDN - Broadband ISDN

BPS - Bits Per Second
( a measure of how fast binary digits can be sent through a channel. The number of 0s and 1s that travel down the channel per second.)


BREW - Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless
BREW - is an open source application development platform for wireless devices equipped for code division multiple access BREW makes it possible for developers to create portable applications that will work on any handsets equipped with CDMA chipsets. A similar and competing platform is J2ME (Java 2 Micro Edition), from SunMicrosystems.


BSC - Base Station Controller
BSS - Base Station System
Base Station Subsystem
BSIC - Base Station Identity Code or
Base transceiver Station Identity Code


BTS - Base Transceiver Station
(This device allows communication between phones and cellular network or it is the network entity which communicates with the mobile station)





Back -light Illumination
illuminates a wireless device’s display and keypad for better low light viewing
Band :
a specific range of frequencies in the radio frequency (RF) spectrum.



Battery:
A chargeable device which provides the mobile phone with power. A variety of battery technologies have been used for mobile phones including nickel cadmiu(NiCad),nickel metal hydride (NiMH) and lithium ion (Li-ion)
Battery status/Battery charge display
An indication of the amount of battery life remaining
Battery Capacity the capacity of wireless devices’ battery. Measured in milliampere hours (mAh).



C

C1 - path loss-criterium

C2 - cell-reselection criterion


Call barring
A service which enables users to bar certain incoming or outgoing calls on their mobile phones

Call timer:
A service which keeps track of the amount of airtime being used by the subscriber on a cumulative basis

Call divert:
The capability to divert incoming calls to another phone (fixed or mobile) or to an answering service

Call hold:
The ability to put an ongoing call on hold whilst answering or making a second call

Caller ID:
Caller Identification (displays the name/number of the person calling a mobile phone. Also known as CLI)

CAI - Common Air Interface
( a standard developed for the UK’s public CT2 networks which enabled the same handset to be used on different networks)

CAMEL - Customised Application for Mobile network Enhanced Logic
( an IN feature in GSM networks that enables users to carry personal services with them when roaming into other networks that support CAMEL)

CB - Cell Broadcast


CC - Call Control(manages call connections)

CCB - Customer Care and Billing

CCCH - Common Control Channels; a group of uplink and downlink channels between the MS and the BTS (see PCH, AGCH and RACH)


CCONT- Current Controller (in nokia fones)

CCS7 - Common Channel Signalling No. 7



CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access
(Code Division Multiple Access; also known as spread spectrum (or IS-95), CDMA cellular systems utilise a single frequency band for all traffic, differentiating the individual transmissions by assigning them unique codes before transmission. There are a number of variants of CDMA (see W-CDMA, B-CDMA, TD-SCDMA et al)



CDMAone:
The first commercial CDMA cellular system; deployed in North America and Korea; also known as IS-95

CDMA2000:
A member of the IMT-2000 3G family; backwardly compatible with cdmaOne

CDMA 1X:
The first generation of cdma2000; the standardisation process indicated that there would be CDMA 2X and CDMA 3X but this no longer appears likely

CDMA 1X EV-DO:
A variant of CDMA 1X which delivers data only

CDPD - Cellular Digital Packet Data (a packet switched data service largely deployed in the USA. The service uses idle analogue channels to carry the packetised information.)

CDPSK - Coherent Differential Phase Shift Keying

CDR - Call Detail Records
(the record made within the cellular network of all details of both incoming and outgoing calls made by subscribers, The CDR is passed to the billing system for action)


Cell:
The area covered by a cellular base station. A cell site may sectorise its antennas to service several cells from one locationCell site
The facility housing the transmitters/receivers, the antennas and associated equipment

Cell splitting:
The process of converting a single cell to multiple cells by sectorising the antennas in the cell site or constructing additional cells within a cell site



Cell Site:
a fixed cellular tower and radio antenna that handles communication with subscribers in a particular area or cell. A cellular network is made up of many cell sites, all connected back to the wired phone system.

CELP:
Code Excited Linear Prediction; an analogue to digital voice coding scheme, there are a number of variants used in cellular systems

CEPT - Conference of European Posts and Telecommunications.

(A organisation of national posts, telegraphs and telephone administrations. Until 1988, when this work was take over by ETSI, the main European body for telecommunications standardisation. CEPT established the original GSM standardisation group)

CF - Call Forwarding

CI - Carrier to Interference ratio

CIBER - Cellular Intercarrier Billing Exchange Roamer Record

CID - Caller Identification

Circuit switching:

A method used in telecommunications where a temporary dedicated circuit of constant bandwidth is established between two distant endpoints in a network. Mainly used for voice traffic; the opposite of packet switching

CLID - Calling Line Identification

CLIP - Calling Line Identification Presentation
CLIR - Calling Line Identification Restriction
CM - Connection Management(it is used to set up, maintain and take down call connections)

CNR - carrier to noise ratio
CNT- Content



COBBA- Common Baseband Analog

CPE - Customer Premises Equipment; all the equipment on the end user’s side of the network interface

CPU - Central Processing Unit

CMOS - Complementary Metal Oxide Substrate


Codec:
A word formed by combining coder and decoder the codec is a device which encodes and decodes signals. The voice codec in a cellular network converts voice signals into and back from bit strings. In GSM networks, in addition to the standard voice codec, it is possible to implement Half Rate (HR) codecs and Enhanced Full Rate (EFR) codecs

Control signal:
A signal sent to a cellular phone from a base station or vice versa which carries information essential to the call but not including the audio portion of a conversation

CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check

CRM - Customer Relationship Management


CSE - CAMEL Service Environment

CSS - Customer Support System

CT - Cordless Telephony

CT0:
Zero generation cordless telephony; the earliest domestic cordless phones which used analogue technology and which had severe limitations in terms of range and security


CT2:
Second generation cordless telephony;

CT1:
First generation cordless telephony; Improved analogue phones with greater range and security; a number of European nations produced CT1 standards

CT2-CAI:
Second generation cordless telephony-common air interface
(Using digital technology CT2 phones offered greater range, improved security and a wide range of new functionalities. Used in both domestic and cordless PABX deployments, CT2 was standardised as an interim ETS but was overwhelmed by DECT)

CTA - Cordless Terminal Adaptor (a DECT term)

CTM - Cordless Terminal Mobility

CTR - Common Technical Regulation

CUG - Closed User Group
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/26/2007, 3:21 am

Run DCTx_UFSx , you will see DCT3, DCTL, DCT4, WD2, UFSx.
For flashing 3660, 6600 choose WD2.
For flashing 6230 choose DCT4.
On WD2, select product model then mcu which contain extension file as C1, C2, C4, C5...... ppm contain file as no. 01,02,03,04.......
PM file is optional, if you have use Erase Flash to erase phone, then PM is needed. PM file contain information for UEM IC inside the phone on frequency, signal and energy setting.
UI option is needed after flashing complete, choose all .

For DCT4 is about the same way, just that the mcu and ppm file is different.
MCU file ended with the extension of three digit XXXXXXX.xxx---> small x stand for digit.
PPM file ended with the extension of mix digit and alphabert XXXXXXX.xxy
small x stand for digit and y stand for alphabert.

Click Flash when all setting is fine

sony Ericsson
Re: Ufs Flashing Tricks & Tips........tutorial

now lest's we move to soney erricson j210i.
STEP 1
======
Q. How to get alive, dead j210 & j200?
Ans.
open UFSAtrZ.
Press Connect... attach battry (fully charged).
Press GO, then attach cabel to set... if it boots then in result window it shows MCU ID.
if not then check mark on right side "use dummy battery".
then its will boot.... and there in status bar writen "Mobile Ready"..
Int. locks,
after locks done press "int. Sec. Block"
then a yes/no dialog box poped up.. press yes...
all done..


STEP 2 - FLASHING
==============
After boot slected flash files as shown in picture 3.
then press "Flash MCU".
after flashing repeat STEP.1.

all done...
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   10/26/2007, 3:58 am

Learn Here How To Service Network Problems


there is two sections in network 1, Rx section. 2, Tx section. all
technicians need to use manual searching in mobile phone, testing for
Rx section and Tx section.


HOW TO FIND WHICH SECTION IS FAULT Tx (or) Rx?


Testing Rx section


use manual search for Testing Rx section, after searching Rx section
good condition means it shows network list like Airtel, hutch, (or) any
other network list in your area,


If Rx section bad condition after searching it shows NO NETWORK FOUND


1, after searching it shows network list means Rx section is ok.

2, after searching it shows NO NETWORK FOUND means Rx section is fault.


Testing Tx section


Use manual search for testing Tx section, after searching it shows
network list, then you can choose your simcard network, if Tx section
is good condition it shows HOME NETWORK SELECTED, if Tx section is
fault it shows NO ACCESS.


1, after selecting network it shows HOME NETWORK SELECTED means Tx section is ok.

2, after selected network it shows NO ACCESS means Tx section is fault.



Information of Rx section components and ics nokia dct-3 tech


1, antenna switch


2, RF IC ( Hagar ic )


3, AUDIO IC ( cobba ic)


4, crystal oscillator


5, filters


6, VCO (voltage control oscillator)




Information of Tx section components and ics nokia dct-3 tech


1, PF IC (PA IC)



Information of Rx section components and ics nokia dct-4 tech


1, antenna switch


2, filters


3, RF IC


4, crystal oscillator


5, VCO (voltage control oscillator)


6, UEM IC



Information of Tx section components and ics nokia dct-4 tech



1, PF IC (PA IC)



HOW TO SERVICE Rx SECTION FAULT ?


Solution for Rx section no network found fault nokia dct-3 technolagy


1,clean the pcb well and Rehot (if not ok follow one by one solutions)


1, give antenna switch jumper


2, Rehot the RF IC


3, Rehot the AUDIO IC


4, Reball the RF IC


5, change the RF IC


6, change the AUDIO IC


7, change the crystal oscillator



Solution for Rx section NO NETWORK FOUND fault nokia dct-4 technology


1, clean the pcb well and Rehot (if not ok follow one by one solutions)


2, give antenna switch jumper


3, Reheat the RF IC


4, change the crystal oscillator


5, Reball the RF IC


6, change the RF IC


7, Change filters



HOW TO SERVICE Tx SECTION FAULT ?



Solution for Tx section NO ACCESS fault nokia dct-3 technolagy


1, Change the PF IC



Solution for Tx section NO ACCESS fault nokia dct-4 technolagy



1, Change the PF IC



SOLUTION FOR OTHER NETWORK FUALT



Solution for low network coverage, all models



1, give jumper from antenna contact to cabinet antenna


2, change the antenna switch



Solution for dct-3 technology

When switch on the mobile it shows full network after few seconds its goas down



1, flash - Rebuild ime - UI settings (if not ok follow 2nd solution)


2, check the track from battery +ve point to PA IC, if track is ok then change the good PF IC.




Solution for dct-4 technology

When switch on the mobile it shows full network after few seconds its goas down



1, write good pm file (if not ok follow 2nd solution)


2, change the PF IC, if still the problem same check the PF power track to battery +ve point

_________________

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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   11/20/2007, 9:31 am

بھائی یہ اردو سیکشن ہے انگریزی نہں
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   11/20/2007, 3:17 pm

very nice lectures thanks brothers .
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   11/21/2007, 1:15 am

abb j sub kuch urdu main b milay ga

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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   11/22/2007, 10:12 am

Itna essy koi bhi nahi bata sakta he,wonderful bhoot hi sundar tarike se class le he aap ne.

U R REALY SIR.
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   11/25/2007, 2:08 am

شکریا اپ کے پسند کرنے کا
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   12/2/2007, 4:33 pm

mujhe kaam pasand ayia .
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   1/21/2008, 7:03 pm

good...keep it up
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   6/18/2008, 5:55 am

yeh saab information urdu mein chahaiyy kab milyy gi ???????
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PostSubject: Re: mobile Repearing corus   4/5/2009, 10:47 am

I SAW YOUR CLASS VERY VERY NICE SIR GOOD
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